"The Tide of War Is Receding"
DEFENSE, DEMOCRACY, DEVELOPMENT, the 3Ds of U.S. SMART POWER
US to send troops to Kenya for ‘training’ troops
The U.S. Army will start training Kenyan troops as part of a major expansion of US military capabilities in Africa. AP reports Pentagon said 1,200 troops from the U.S. Army’s 2nd Brigade, known as the Dagger Brigade, will be deployed to as many as 35 African countries in the next two months. The Washington Times reported Dec. 23 the move would be an effort to respond quickly to sudden challenges in hot spots such as Libya. U.S.AFRICOM recently set up a rapid-response force capable of direct military intervention...AFRICOM Gen Carter Ham revealed the establishment of the “Commander’s in-Extremis Force” during a talk at a university in Washington D.C. this month....using September attack on the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi, Libya, as a pretext...U.S. ambassador Col. James Learmont said a key requirement is readiness for every conceivable situation, such as the consulate attack in Benghazi....
context: US terror war for global supremacy:
US unveils new drive for Africa
...The renewed focus on Africa comes as China increasingly funnels investment toward the continent, seeking to bolster its diplomatic footprint partly as a way of slaking its growing economy’s thirst for new energy sources. China is bringing “incredibly needed” capital to African economies, and could play a role in bringing lasting peace to Sudan, the official said. Bilateral trade between China and Africa reached over $120 billion in 2011, from less than $20 billion a decade earlier.
Kenya Denies Hosting US Spy Plane Operations
NAIROBI - Kenyan military officials denied the US is using Kenyan territory or airspace to conduct regional surveillance missions, as CITED in a WP report describing expanding U.S. intelligence operations across Africa.
voice of amerika reports sudden US discovery:
Violence Against Kenyan Children Excessive, UNICEF Report Finds
Ahmed Hussein, Director of children's services in the UNICEF Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Development, says the Kenyan government is committed to stopping violence against children "... we have already developed the framework for the national child protection system. And we are setting up child protection centers in the counties, to respond to violence and abuse against children. It’s a commitment from the government of Kenya that we are going to implement the recommendations contained in that report. And our minister gave a tacit commitment towards that,”
U.S. Military Activities in Kenya
Jan. 2008 by Daniel Volman, http://concernedafricascholars.org/african-security-research-project/?p=...
The US is heavily invested in stability in Kenya. Kenya has long been a key military partner of the United States and a major African recipient of U.S. military assistance. The Bush administration Pentagon gave Kenya $1.6 million worth of weaponry and other military assistance in 2006 and an estimated $2.5 million in 2007 through its Foreign Military Sales Program and in 2008 expects to provide Kenya with $800,000 Foreign Military Financing Program funds for further arms purchases and $550,000 to train Kenyan military officers in the US through the International Military Education and Training Program at US military academies and other military educational institutions. Kenya has also been permitted to make large arms deals directly with private American arms producers through the State Department’s Direct Commercial Sales Program. Kenya took deliver of $1.9 million worth of arms this way in 2005, got an estimated $867,000 worth in 2007, and is expected to receive another $3.1 million worth this year.
The United States is also providing training and equipment to Kenya’s military, internal security, and police forces through several global and regional programs. These include:
• The East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative established in 2003 as a multi-year program with $100 million in funding to provide training to Kenya as well as to Uganda, Tanzania, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.
• The Anti-Terrorism Assistance (ATA) Program was created in 1983—under the administration of the State Department Bureau of Diplomatic Security—to provide training, equipment, and technology to countries all around the world to support their participation in America’s Global War on Terrorism. The largest ATA program in Africa is targeted at Kenya, where it helped created the Kenyan Antiterrorism Police Unit (KAPU) in 2004 to conduct anti-terrorism operations, the Joint Terrorism Task Force in 2004 to coordinate anti-terrorism activities (although the unit was disbanded by the Kenyan government in 2005, and is now training and equipping members of a multi-agency, coast guard-type unit to patrol Kenya’s coastal waters. Between 2003 and 2005 (the most recent years for which this information is available), ATA provided training both in Kenya and in the United States to 454 Kenyan police, internal security, and military officers.
The creation of the KAPU was financed with $10 million IN 2003, along with $622,000 from ATA; the ATA spent $21 million on training for Kenya in 2004, $3.5 in 2005, and another $3.2 in 2006. The Bush administration requested $2.9 for 2007 and an additional $5.5 in 2008.
• The Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was created in October 2002 to conduct naval and aerial patrols in the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the eastern Indian Ocean as part of the effort to detect and counter the activities of terrorist groups in the region. The CJTF-FOA used military facilities in Kenya as well as in Djibouti and Ethiopia to launch air and naval strikes against alleged al-Qaeda members involved in the Council of Islamic Courts in Somalia in January and June of 2007. In addition the US has negotiated base access agreements with the government of Kenya—along with the governments of Gabon, Mali, Morocco, Tunisia, Namibia, Sao Tome, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia—to allow US troops to use their military facilities (know as Cooperative Security Locations and Forward Operating Sites) whenever it wants to deploy its troops in Africa...has built a close military relationship with the government of Mwai Kibaki and played a central role in the creation of his internal security apparatus being deployed with such bloody results throughout Kenya....
Daniel Volman, Director of the African Security Research Project (ASRP) in Washington, DC, and member of the Board of Directors of the Association of Concerned Africa Scholars (ACAS) is a specialist on U.S. military policy toward Africa and African security issues.
US Army Medical Research Unit Kenya
Welcome to U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya! In an interconnected world, timely medical product development and health surveillance plays a critical role not only for the health protection of our military personnel but also for the global population. USAMRU-K or MRU) is often referred to as “The Walter Reed Project” by Kenyans. There are two U.S. Embassy Locally Engaged Staff (LES) and over 600 contracted Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) or Henry Jackson Foundation - Medical Research International (HJF-MRI) employees assigned to the unit. Primary operational sites in Kenya include Nairobi, Kericho Field Station and Kisumu Field Station. USAMRU-K Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases is based in Nairobi with numerous satellite collection sites located throughout Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Cameroon executing the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD GEIS).
USAMRU-K ORGANIZATIONAL FOOTPRINT
USAMRU-K is composed of US department of Defense, US Embassy locally engaged staff, Kenya Medical Research Institute and Henry M. Jackson Foundation Medical Research International employees.Primary operational sites in Kenya for USAMRU-K include Nairobi, Kericho Field Station and Kisumu Field Station.
USAMRU-K, located in Nairobi, Kenya on the campus of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) is one of five U.S. DoD overseas research laboratories. USAMRU-K Headquarters coordinates operations with U.S. Embassy, Senior Defense Official/Defense Attaché which includes the Kenya U.S. Liaison Office (KUSLO)/Defense Attaché Office (DAO), U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), U.S. Army Africa (USARAF), U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and Kenyan Ministries.
Walter Reed Army Research Institute WRAIR
US Army Medical Research & Material Command
Kenya Medical Research Institute KEMRI
US Centers of Disease Control CDC
World Health Organization WHO
African Medical Research Foundation AMREF
Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences AFRIMS
Science and Development Network
AFN American Forces Network Online
CIA Fake Vaccine Program .
7/12/11 abcnews.go.com/ Blotter/ cia-ran-fake-vaccine-program-target-osama-bin/ story
WHO and the UNICEF children's agency halt work on the three-day nationwide vaccination campaign
UNICEF spokeswoman Sarah Crowe says they are "deeply saddened" by the deaths, and that local workers help dispel rumors that vaccination efforts sterilize Muslims or are dangerous for children.While no one has claimed responsibility for the attacks, the Pakistani Taliban have prevented such programs in the past, saying they are a cover for spying after a Pakistani doctor was imprisoned for helping U.S. intelligence agents run a fake hepatitis vaccination program the CIA said was aimed at locating al-Qaida chief Osama bin Laden.
US demands the doctor's release
CIA organised fake vaccination drive...
CIA agents recruited Shakil Afridi, the official surgeon health official in Khyber...to organise a vaccine drive in Abbottabad, allegedly to get a DNA sample from Bin Laden's blood, starting the "project" in a poorer part of town according to Pakistani and US officials...The doctor went to Abbottabad in March, saying he had procured funds to give free Hepatiis B vaccinations. Bypassing the Abbottabad health management services by paying generous sums to low-ranking local government health workers to take part in the operation....The doctor was arrested by the Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI) for co-operating with American intelligence agents..the US demanded his release...The CIA has refused to comment on the vaccination plot. Over the weekend, relations were pummeled further as the US announced it would cut $800m (£500m)of military aid for Pakistan's perceived lack of co-operation in the anti-terror fight.
Six polio aid workers killed in Pakistan
In June, Taliban militants in Pakistan’s North Waziristan region ordered a ban on polio vaccination campaigns, saying it could be a cover for US espionage...The Taliban further said they would not allow a vaccination campaign to be conducted as long as US assassination drone attacks continue Taliban commander Hafiz Gul Bahadur said in pamphlets distributed in the North Waziristan region. Gunmen killed six health workers in two Pakistani cities this week when the government began a * World Health Organization (WHO) - local government anti-polio vaccination campaign, officials say.
Aid workers abducted at Kenya Dadaab camp
1/29/12 www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2012/06/2012629112537457510.html -
Somali militants ambushed an aid convoy, killing a Kenyan aid worker and kidnapping four international workers at a Kenyan refugee camp .
Medical experimentation in Africa
US Medical experimentation has been occurring in Africa for a long time
US biological weapons program
https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ United_States_biological_weapons_program -
The U.S. also ran experiments with anthrax, code named Project Bacchus....
US medical researchers conducting human experimentation in Africa
“Non-Consensual Research in Africa: The Outsourcing of Tuskegee”
Prominent institutions and drug companies like Pfizer, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, and Population Council, involvement in human experimentation in Africa.
United States biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies are conducting and paying African doctors to conduct unethical and illegal testing of human subjects. Non- consensual research on human subjects is an atrocity that occurred in Tuskegee, Alabama, and in Guatemala for over forty years. U.S. medical researchers began experimenting on thousands of human research subjects without their consent in Cameroon, Ghana, Namibia, Nigeria, Uganda, South Africa, Zimbabwe and other African countries....
In one experiment in Nigeria led by Pfizer physicians, researchers injected children with an antibiotic called Trovan during a meningitis outbreak without providing their families with informed consent forms that fully disclose the side effects and purpose of the experiment. Eleven children died and many were left paralyzed. In South Africa and Namibia, mothers are routinely sterilized without their informed consent. Countries that perform these procedures receive funding in the form of grants and incentives from USAID and other US aid organizations.
"When a little boy is kidnapped, turned into a child soldier, forced to kill or be killed - that's slavery, It is barbaric, it is evil, and it has no place in a civilized world. Now, as a nation, we've long rejected such cruelty"
Obama at Clinton Global Initiative.http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/09/25/remarks-president-clinton-global-initiative
Presidential Memorandum--Child Soldiers Prevention Act
Presidential Determination No. 2011-4 to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title IV of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110 457), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to waive the application to Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, and Yemen of the prohibition in section 404(a) of the CSPA.You are authorized and directed to submit this determination to the Congress, along with the accompanying memorandum of justification, and to publish it in the Federal Register. BARACK OBAMA
third year in a row...
Obama issues presidential memorandum waiving penalties under the Child Soldiers Protection Act of 2008 ...
thecable.foreignpolicy.com/ posts/ 2012/10/ 01/ obama_waives_sanctions_on_countries_that_use_child_soldiers
Obama waived almost all U.S. sanctions that would punish certain countries that use child soldiers for the third year in a row. Late Friday Obama issued a presidential memorandum waiving penalties under the Child Soldiers Protection Act of 2008 for Libya, South Sudan, and Yemen to prevent U.S. arms sales to countries declared by the State Department the worst abusers of child soldiers...and partially waived sanctions against the Democratic Republic of the Congo to allow some military training and arms sales to that country.
Sen. Boxer proposes deploying National Guard at schools
"Is it not part of the national defense to make sure that our children are safe?" Boxer said at Capitol Hill press conference. Federal funds would be made available to deploy National Guard troops at schools under legislation introduced Wednesday by Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.) in response to last week’s mass slaying at an elementary school in Newtown, Conn. The Save Our Schools Act would leave it to governors to decide whether to call out the National Guard and how to use troops around schools.
Obama declares new strategic 'peace, democracy and security'' for imperialist domination
New US Africa Strategy
Our message to those who would derail the democratic process is clear and unequivocal: the United States will not stand idly by when actors threaten legitimately
elected governments or manipulate the fairness and integrity of democratic processes...America believes in Africa as a region of growing opportunity and promise, for Africa, for America, for our people and our economies. We believe that Africa can be the world’s next major economic success story...we will encourage American companies to seize trade and investment opportunities in Africa, so their skills, capital, and technology will further support the region’s economic expansion, while helping to create jobs here in America....
The United States will partner with sub-Saharan African countries to pursue interdependent and mutually reinforcing objectives...
Growth for China, Sub-Saharan Africa
Obama Vastly Expands US Military Operations in Africa
One locale likely to see an influx of Pentagon spies in the coming years is Africa. Under President Obama, operations on the continent have accelerated far beyond the more limited interventions of the Bush years. Last year's war in Libya; a regional drone campaign with missions run out of airports and bases in Djibouti, Ethiopia, and the Indian Ocean archipelago nation of Seychelles; a flotilla of 30 ships in that ocean supporting regional operations; a multi-pronged military and CIA campaign against militants in Somalia, including intelligence operations, training for Somali agents, secret prisons, helicopter attacks, and U.S. commando raids; a massive influx of cash for counterterrorism operations across East Africa; a possible old-fashioned air war, carried out on the sly in the region using manned aircraft; tens of millions of dollars in arms for allied mercenaries and African troops; and a special opsexpeditionary force (bolstered by State Department experts) dispatched to help capture or kill Lord's Resistance Army leader Joseph Kony and his senior commanders, operating in Uganda, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic (where U.S. Special Forces now have a new base) only begins to scratch the surface of Washington's fast-expanding plans and activities in the region.
Even less well known are other U.S. military efforts designed to train African forces for operations now considered integral to American interests on the continent. These include, for example, a mission by elite Force Recon Marines from the Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force 12 (SPMAGTF-12) to train soldiers from the Uganda People's Defense Force, which supplies the majority of troops to the African Union Mission in Somalia.
Earlier this year, Marines from SPMAGTF-12 also trained soldiers from the Burundi National Defense Force, the second-largest contingent in Somalia; sent trainers into Djibouti (where the U.S. already maintains a major Horn of Africa base at Camp Lemonier); and traveled to Liberia where they focused on teaching riot-control techniques to Liberia's military as part of an otherwise State Department spearheaded effort to rebuild that force.
The U.S. is also conducting counterterrorism training and equipping militaries in Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mauritania, Niger, and Tunisia. In addition, U.S. Africa Command (Africom) has 14 major joint-training exercises planned for 2012, including operations in Morocco, Cameroon, Gabon, Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, Senegal, and what may become the Pakistan of Africa, Nigeria. Even this doesn't encompass the full breadth of U.S. training and advising missions in Africa. To take an example not on AFRICOM's list, this spring the U.S. brought together 11 African nations...to take part in a maritime training exercise code-named Saharan Express 2012.
3 months later...
U.S. expands secret war in Africa
ALGIERS, Algeria, Sept. 24 (UPI) -- U.S. President Barack Obama 's "secret wars" against al-Qaida are steadily widening, most notably in Africa, with U.S. Special Forces Operation Command doubling in size and CIA strike capabilities undergoing radical expansion, international analysts said. "Ad hoc global 'counter-terrorism' efforts that began under President George W. Bush and encouraged by Obama, have become institutionalized -- and will continue to expand for the next couple of years, particularly in Africa. Washington is in the process of a massive expansion of what are referred to internally as 'lily pads' that allow it a global strike capability," according to a recent Oxford Analytica assessment....these include facilities in Kenya, Uganda, the Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and the Seychelles islands in the Indian Ocean off East Africa. Western military sources say they are seeking to establish a base in the new state of South Sudan as well...
West Africa is emerging as a vital mineral and oil-producing zone attracting China and India...East Africa is on the cusp of a major oil and natural gas bonanza, making it of particular interest to Beijing and New Delhi because its energy and mineral wealth can be shipped directly eastward across the Indian Ocean. Some analysts view the Indian Ocean as a future conflict zone between China and India because of its sea lanes....autocratic and dictatorial regimes plunder their countries' wealth....Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso come to mind ...energy booms will strengthen those regimes and forestall moves toward democracy and good governance. In 2007, the US inaugurated an Africa Command [AFRICOM] to coordinate U.S. military affairs with governments across the continent.
Africans see the U.S. AFRICOM as an instrument to protect U.S. investment, particularly oil and gas, rather than Washington's stated aims... African expert Toby Leon Moorsom of Canada's Queen's University observed "interest in Islamic fundamentalism is much more appealing to people who've lost everything for the sake of the 1 percent intent on taking it all. Armies are not signs of hope for those who have recently lost their land in mining concessions and land grabs."
Indeed, some analysts suspect these developments will drive Africans toward groups like al-Qaida and its allies in North Africa, Nigeria and Somalia, which will trigger U.S. "secret war" operations to contain them, as is now taking place in Somalia and nearby Yemen.
Drug Cartels Reach Further Across Africa
NAIROBI -U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration officials say Mexican drug cartels increasingly us Africa as a conduit for illegal drugs. DEA officials say their investigations indicate a growing number of chemicals used to produce illegal drugs for cartels in Mexico have been coming from African traffickers...that Mexican drug cartel links to criminal groups in Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Nigeria. Jeff Breeden, DEA Headquarters’ Africa section chief said “We haven’t identified specific cartel activity in Africa. We’ve identified Mexicans in Africa, and we know they are affiliated with cartels - we just haven’t put it together,” Breeden said....
U.S. Steps Up Militarization of Africa Through “Drug Wars”
A Black Agenda Radio commentary by Glen Ford
... D.E.A. recently described Africa as the “new frontier” where Washington plans to embed commando-style teams of specially vetted police for a US-run war on drugs, similar to US operations in El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, and the Dominican Republic....we know how those so-called anti-drug operations turned out...add to the list Colombia and Afghanistan, the world capitals of cocaine and heroin, respectively. According to mythology, everything King Midas touched turned to gold. It appears the US has the Narcotics Touch - everything it touches turns to dope...its allies in the 'developing world' quickly become narco-states. The pattern has not changed in 60 years, since the Italian and French mafias were rewarded with international drug franchises in return for their assistance against socialists and communists. Southeast Asia’s Golden Triangle became the center of the global heroin trade during the Vietnam War – a CIA project. When the US shifted focus to suppressing leftist movements in Latin America, cocaine became the region’s biggest export. The US has never waged war against drugs – quite the opposite -- it rewards political friends with drug franchises and monopolies, in return for service to US interests. That’s why most of America’s friends in the 'developing world' are criminal regimes...That’s how its Narco Touch works. The endless "War on Drugs" another US tool to subvert foreign governments and societies. Now it’s Africa’s turn... Liberia and Ghana, where it plans to train elite police units after “vetting” their personnel...making sure the commandos are willing to act as de facto US operatives. You can be sure Liberia and Ghana will emerge as hubs of the African drug trade – as happened in Colombia and elsewhere in Latin America. With its “vetted” operatives in charge of the African drug networks, the US will vastly increase its ability to buy influence across the continent, in and out of uniform... its 'Drug Wars' indistinguishable from the 'War on Terror', which used to be the 'War on Communism'... a war against the poor.
Pentagon Cries Poor, Starts $10 Billion Nuclear Weapon Upgrade
"There is no such thing in America, at this date of the world's history, as an independent press. The business of the journalists is to destroy the truth, to lie outright, to pervert, to vilify, to fawn at the feet of mammon, and to sell his country and his race for his daily bread. We are the tools and vassals of rich men behind the scenes. We are the jumping jacks, they pull the strings and we dance. Our talents, our possibilities and our lives are all the property of other men. We are intellectual prostitutes."
John Swinton, Chief of Staff New York Times at New York Press Club, 1953
US PUBLIC DIPLOMACY 'NEWS' VIA STATE DEPT. & SOROS NGOS
The New York Times Features Advancing Human Rights’ Merger With Movements.org
6/11/12 By Scott Shane, http://advancinghumanrights.org/news/the_new_york_times_features_advanci...
(original article .
From Egyptian bloggers to Russian Twitterati, activists around the world have turned the Internet into a tool for political change, as governments have learned its usefulness for surveillance.
Now two American human rights groups, one co-founded by a State Department official turned Google executive and one by a veteran activist who championed Soviet dissidents, are joining forces to support online activists in authoritarian countries. The merger involves Movements.org , co-founded in 2008 by Jared Cohen, now director of Google Ideas, the company’s research arm, and Advancing Human Rights, created two years ago by Robert L. Bernstein who started Human Rights Watch in 1978.
Mr. Cohen, a State Department official when he helped start Movements.org, said his group...was impressed by the activists abroad connected by one of Advancing Human Rights' programs, CyberDissidents.org, run by David Keyes, 28, executive director of Advancing Human Rights, an advocate and pioneer in online activism... “a creative young guy with a phenomenal network of cyberactivists in the Middle East and North Africa” Mr. Cohen said....
In addition to providing connections, technical and other support to dissidents abroad, Advancing Human Rights intends to publish their work in a series of e-books, as Mr. Bernstein, retired chairman of Random House, once published the work of Andrei Sakharov and other Soviet dissidents.
Apart from its online orientation, Advancing Human Rights is distinguished by its embrace of a disputed philosophy in the human rights world: it will focus exclusively on authoritarian countries.
In 2009, Mr. Bernstein broke publicly with Human Rights Watch, where he was chairman for 20 years, over what he had come to believe was its excessive attention to the misdeeds of Israel. More broadly, he said, he thought the group devoted too much energy on “open societies” like Israel and the United States, rather than on dictatorships. He argued in a 2009 Op-Ed article in The NYT that Human Rights Watch should concentrate on the most repressive countries...[the] leaders considered his argument and rejected it, saying it would be “a violation of our core principle that human rights are universal” to ignore problems in Israel or the United States (legitimized and defused by Soros NGO liberal imperialist-zionist 'criticisms')
In 2008, Mr. Cohen was an aide to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice when US officials learned [SIC] a protest involving millions of Colombians against kidnappings by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, had been organized in part via Facebook. On the State Department’s policy staff, Mr. Cohen as “the go-to person on tech stuff..." found that few US embassies tracked online activists worldwide, and helped start an activist summit ...[that] gave rise to Movements.org and linked traditional dissidents with younger Web masters.
Jared Cohen is aiming to re-frame and act on old challenges in new and innovative ways... he is Director of Google Ideas and Adjunct Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, where he focuses on terrorism and counter-radicalization, the impact of connection technologies, and “21st century statecraft”...previously he served for four years as a member of the US State Department’s vinLP, and CEO of World Monitors Inc., which works with global corporations and others on strategies. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Human Rights First (formerly the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights), which he co-founded in 1978. He has visited more than a dozen countries on human rights fact-finding missions for organizations such as Human Rights First, Human Rights Watch and the International League for Human Rights. He is an officer or director of several public interest organizations, including the American Conservation Association and Human Rights in China, and the Council on Foreign Relations. From 1984 to 1990, served as the First Assistant Attorney General of New York State. He is a graduate of Princeton University and the University of Virginia School of Law.