“State and Local Fusion Centers: Key Challenges for the Next Decade”
"Fusion centers serve as hubs of strategic analysis and information sharing where Federal, State, and local agencies are all represented in one location. State and local crime data is coordinated, gathered and reviewed to determine if there is any potential connection to terrorist activity. In addition, Federal terrorism-related information is shared with State and local law enforcement....Our nation faces an evolving threat environment, in which threats not only emanate from outside our borders, but also from within our communities. This new environment demonstrates the increasingly critical role fusion centers play... in preventing, protecting against, and responding to crime and terrorism...
"The Committee’s review concludes the Network is not functioning as cohesively as it should and fusion centers are facing numerous challenges preventing the Network from realizing its full potential to help secure the homeland."
In 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing called for the establishment of "baseline operational standards" for fusion centers. In 2008, the federal government, in collaboration with federal, state, local, tribal and territorial (SLTT) partners. SLTT partners, published the Baseline Capabilities for State and Major Urban Area Fusion Centers (PDF, 37 pages - 4.6 MB) to establish baseline operational standards and to outline the capabilities necessary for fully operational fusion centers.
KNOWN UNKNOWNS: UNCONVENTIONAL “STRATEGIC SHOCKS” IN DEFENSE STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT
November 2008, www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub890.pdf
9/11 was important. However, was it important enough to make DoD’s appreciation of unconventional shocks irreversible? Without question, 9/11 was a DoD “game changer” for DoD.54 So too, was the sudden onset of the insurgency in Iraq. In the wake of 9/11, the on-going GWoT, and active irregular conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, senior DoD leaders and strategists increasingly recognize the importance of defense-relevant shocks. On-going efforts like DoD’s “strategic trends and shocks” initiative and the State Department’s “Project Horizon” are embryonic efforts intended in part to institutionalize the concept of strategic shock in routine government planning and decisionmaking.55 Both efforts are futures oriented and preventive. Both are intended to help define near-term choices and decision space. Finally, both seek to shape priorities, capabilities, and strategic design in ways that will posture defense and national security to better anticipate, prevent, and, if prevention fails, respond decisively to sudden strategic shock in the ..Both advanced warning of impending shock and decisive blending of defense and non-defense resources in response rely on whole-of-government commitment...
Violent, Strategic Dislocation Inside the United States.
As the defense establishment swears to protect and defend the constitution against all enemies foreign and domestic. DoD’s role in combating “domestic enemies” has never been thoughtfully examined. Thus, there is perhaps no greater source of strategic shock for DoD than operationalizing that component of the oath of service in a widespread domestic emergency that entails rapid dissolution of public order in all or significant parts of the United States.... this is clearly a “Black Swan” that merits visibility inside DoD and the Department of Homeland Security. To the extent events like this involve organized violence against local, state, and national authorities and exceed the capacity of the former two to restore public order
and protect vulnerable populations, DoD would be required to fill the gap. This is largely uncharted strategic territory.
Widespread civil violence inside the United States would force defense to reorient priorities in extremis to defend basic domestic order and human security. Deliberate employment of weapons of mass destruction or other catastrophic capabilities, unforeseen economic collapse, loss of functioning political and legal order, purposeful domestic resistance or insurgency, pervasive public health emergencies, and catastrophic natural and human disasters are all paths to disruptive domestic shock....this might include use of military force against hostile groups inside the United States. Further, DoD would be by necessity, an essential enabling hub for the continuity of political authority in a multi-state or nationwide civil conflict or disturbance.
A whole host of long-standing defense conventions would be severely tested....civilian authorities, on advice of the military would need to rapidly determine the parameters defining the
legitimate use of military force inside the United States.
Further still, the whole concept of conflict termination and/or transition to the primacy of civilian security institutions would be uncharted ground. DoD is already challenged by stabilization abroad. Imagine the challenges associated with doing so on a massive scale at home.
Homeland Security and Intelligence: Next Steps in Evolving the Mission
January 18, 2012 http://www.aspeninstitute.org/publications/homeland-security-intelligenc...
This paper was released during a hearing before the Terrorism, HUMIT, Analysis, and Counterintelligence (THACI) Subcommittee of U.S. House of Representatives' Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI). AHSG members who appeared as witnesses included former DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff; former Deputy Director of FBI's National Security Branch and Deputy Director of CIA's Counterterrorist Center Philip Mudd; and former Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism Juan Zarate.
...The creation of DHS led to rapid growth in a workforce, and thirst for analytic product, that required the US Government to move quickly, before the foundations of homeland security
intelligence were established and before we had the luxury of a full post-9/11 decade to understand where we need to go. We have an opportunity now to step back and review how much this new enterprise differs from the conventional and how we can succeed, beyond what we understood even five years ago, in delivering new, innovative product to different customers. And how we can develop simple processes through which they deliver clear requirements to analysts in Washington and at fusion centers across the country. This review provides that opportunity. Download Publication »
Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative (NSI)
National Information Exchange Model ( NIEM) is an XML-based information exchange framework from the United States. NIEM represents a collaborative partnership of ...
NIEM Standards in Action
What Makes an Activity Suspicious?
• A citizen observes or reports to law enforcement authorities that something is alarming, out of the ordinary, or “just not right”
• Law enforcement or government official observes something
• Based on training or experience to recognize behaviors and indicators that are associated with terrorism-related criminal activity
• Knowledge of laws and regulations
• Interactivity with other agencies
• Studies and research done on behaviors leading to crimes and terrorist acts (e.g., LAPD, NCTC, FBI)
• The NSI is based on the ISE-SAR Functional Standard established by the Office of the Program Manager – Information Sharing Environment (PM-ISE)
• The NSI relies on existing law enforcement practices gathering information of observed behaviors and incidents associated with crimes...extremely sensitive to privacy concerns
• The NSI establishes a processes and a technology infrastructure whereby information can be shared to detect and prevent criminal activity, including that associated with domestic and international terrorism
What is the Nationwide SAR Initiative (NSI)
All Levels of Government Participate in NSI
Key objectives of the NSI
• Support an implementation process that within the agency’s framework to gather, process, analyze, and report behaviors and events indicative of criminal activity
• Ensure that a SAR has been legally gathered and is determined to have a potential nexus with terrorism-related criminal activity
• Ensure that policies and procedures are in place to protect citizen privacy and civil liberties
• Support the institutionalization of standard processes by providing comprehensive SAR training for executives, analysts and street officer personnel
• Establish appropriate technology at participating sites to enable the sharing of terrorism-related SARs across the Information Sharing Environment
• Standardize on NIEM based data exchanges using LEXS-SR and LEXS- PD standards and IEPD established by ISE SAR Functional Standard (FS-200)
Nationwide SAR Cycle
State and major urban area fusion centers, in coordination with local and federal officials, develop risk assessments State and major urban area fusion centers, in coordination with local and federal officials, develop information needs based on risk assessment Frontline law enforcement personnel (federal, state, local, and tribal) trained to recognize behavior and incidents indicative of criminal activity associated with terrorism.
Community outreach plan implemented Observation and reporting of behaviors and incidents by trained law enforcement personnel during their routine activity Supervisory review of the report in accordance with departmental policy SAR made available to fusion center and/or JTTF At fusion center or JTTF, a trained analyst or law enforcement officer determines, based on information available, knowledge, experience, and personal judgment, whether the information meeting the ISE-SAR criteria may have a terrorism nexus Determination and documentation of an ISE-SAR ISE-SAR posted in an ISE
Shared Space Authorized ISE participants access and view ISE-SAR Federal agencies produce and make available information products to support the development of geographic risk assessments by state and major urban area fusion centers Planning Gathering and Processing Analysis and Production Dissemination Reevaluation In major cities, SAR reviewed by trained counterterrorism expert Suspicious Activity Processing Steps National coordinated information needs on annual and ad hoc basis
The Evolution of NIEM SAR Standards
• The ISE-SAR Evaluation Environment (ISE-SAR EE) was established in 2008 to provide an operational NSI infrastructure to enable:
• Operational testing of Common Terrorism Information Sharing Standards (CTISS) and NIEM data exchange standards (LEXS-SR and LEXS-PD)
• Identification of best practices (training, analysis, privacy, technology)
• Effective sharing of SAR data between federal, state and local agencies (14)
• Per PM-ISE guidance ISE-SAR EE represents a distributed and decentralized solution to allow agencies to locally hold and control SAR data yet make data easily and securely
accessible (viewable) by other authorized law enforcement agencies
• This local repository of suspicious activity reports having a “potential” nexus with terrorism is referred to as an ISE “Shared Space” and collectively as the ISE Shared Spaces
• SAR data in ISE Shared Spaces,accessible via secure CUI networks by users authorized DOJ Trusted Broker technology using federated search/query tool at www.ncirc.gov
[DOC] FEMA Conflict based events, e.g., war, acts of terrorism (World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings), civil unrest, riots, revolutions. Related Terms.
Civil Disturbance: A civil unrest activity such as a demonstration, riot... Incident: natural or human-caused
Emergency Management Institute