“The only revolution ever based on loving your enemy is the Negro revolution…That’s no revolution”
Malcolm X, 1963 speech, (Message to the Grass Roots, 9).
“We want freedom now, but we're not going to get it saying 'We Shall Overcome.' We've got to fight to overcome"
1965 speech, Malcolm X (Malcolm X Speaks, 38)
Malcolm X with Haley, Autobiography of Malcolm X, 1965.
Malcolm on the difference between the "house Negro" and the "field Negro."
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. 23 January 1963.
Transcribed text from audio excerpt. [read entire speech
So you have two types of Negro. The old type and the new type. Most of you know the old type. When you read about him in history during slavery he was called "Uncle Tom." He was the house Negro -- probably in the basement or the attic --but he lived in the master's house.
And during slavery you had two Negroes. You had the house Negro and the field Negro.
The house Negro usually lived close to his master. He dressed like his master. He wore his master's second-hand clothes. He ate the food his master left on the table. And he lived in his master's house--
So whenever that house Negro identified himself, he always identified himself in the same sense that his master identified himself. When his master said, "We have good food," the house Negro would say, "Yes, we have plenty of good food." "We" have plenty of good food. When the master said that "we have a fine home here," the house Negro said, "Yes, we have a fine home here." When the master would be sick, the house Negro identified himself so much with his master he'd say, "What's the matter boss, we sick?" His master's pain was his pain. And it hurt him more for his master to be sick than for him to be sick himself. When the house started burning down, that type of Negro would fight harder to put the master's house out than the master himself would.
But then you had another Negro out in the field. The house Negro was in the minority. The masses--the field Negroes were the masses. They were in the majority. When the master got sick, they prayed that he'd die. [Laughter] If his house caught on fire, they'd pray for a wind to come along and fan the breeze.
If someone came to the house Negro and said, "Let's go, let's separate," naturally Uncle Tom would say, "Go where? What could I do without boss? Where would I live? How would I dress? Who would look out for me?" That's the house Negro. But if you went to the field Negro and said, "Let's go, let's separate," he wouldn't even ask you where or how. He'd say, "Yes, let's go." And that one ended right there.
So now you have a twentieth-century-type of house Negro. A twentieth-century Uncle Tom. He's just as much an Uncle Tom today as Uncle Tom was 100 and 200 years ago. Only he's a modern Uncle Tom. That Uncle Tom wore a handkerchief around his head. This Uncle Tom wears a top hat. He's sharp. He dresses just like you do. He speaks the same phraseology, the same language. He tries to speak it better than you do. He speaks with the same accents, same diction. And when you say, "your army," he says, "our army." He hasn't got anybody to defend him, but anytime you say "we" he says "we." "Our president," "our government," "our Senate," "our congressmen," "our this and our that." And he hasn't even got a seat in that "our" even at the end of the line. So this is the twentieth-century Negro. Whenever you say "you," the personal pronoun in the singular or in the plural, he uses it right along with you. When you say you're in trouble, he says, "Yes, we're in trouble."
MLK on US assassinations
Malcolm X assassinated in Harlem Feb 21, 1965
Like the murder of Patrice Lumumba in the Congo, the murder of Malcolm X deprives the world of a potentially great leader. I could not agree with either of these men, but I could see in them a capactiy for leadership which I could respect which was only beginning to mature in judgment and statesmanship.
John Lewis at Martin Luther King event: ‘Never, ever hate’
Martin Luther King III, Martin Luther King Jr,’s oldest son, arrived at Trump Tower in New York to meet the president-elect just before 1pm. Nearly an hour later King and Trump emerged and spoke to reporters. Asked why he had met Trump, who did not talk to the press was seen shaking his guest’s hand, said it was a constructive meeting “We have got to move forward.” King and N.Y. lawyer William Wachtel, said they spoke to Trump about voter participation and how to carry forward King’s father’s legacy making it “easier for everyone to vote”.President-elect Trump has committed to working with us.”...
In 2013, a supreme court decision struck down key elements of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, a central achievement of the civil rights movement designed to protect minority voters. “This president may well” be in adherence with the spirit of the Voting Rights Act “and once again make it easy for all Americans to vote”, Wachtel said...King said: Asked about Lewis, King replied, “Things get said on both sides in the heat of emotion. And at some point in this nation we’ve got to move forward.” He added he would “continue to evaluate” Trump’s commitment to representing all Americans.
...Lewis said last week he would not attend the inauguration, following intelligence reports of Russian interference in the election he did not regard Trump as a legitimate president. Trump in a fierce Twitter counterattack accused Lewis of being “all talk” and warned him to focus on his “crime infested district ”....Lewis spoke Monday in Miami to celebrate the MLK holiday. He did not mention Trump but invoked King’s philosophy of non-violence in a hinted rebuke at the president-elect’s vitriolic style....
Lewis added that he did now know where his career – or America – would be without Martin Luther King Jr. “He freed us, he liberated us.”
“I believe we have to consistently engage with pressure, public pressure....never with hate... I think my father would be very concerned about the 50 to 60 million people living in poverty. It’s insanity we have poor people in this nation, it’s unacceptable. We need to be talking about how to clothe people, how do we feed people.”
A civil rights veteran told the Guardian she supported the Trump-King meeting but also praised members of Congress who plan to boycott the inauguration. “Those members of Congress feel that not attending the inauguration is making a statement they are against the politics put forth by Donald Trump,” Doris Crenshaw, who campaigned with Rosa Parks and met Martin Luther King Jr before his assassination in 1968, told the Guardian. She called on Trump to call Lewis and “have a conversation”.