5/12 US AFRICOM Humanitarian 'hashtag' Operations

There is suspicion in Nigeria that pressure for a greater US role will be used to justify AFRICOM after it rejected pressure for it to be based in Nigeria and openly opposed its creation...
Nigeria kidnapping: why Boko Haram is a top security priority for the US
...Nigeria: a centrepiece of US security policy
Although Boko Haram’s abduction of the schoolgirls has thrust the violence in Nigeria onto the world diplomatic stage, the crisis has been high on Washington's African agenda for several years. But even before that, the most populous country in Africa was a centrepiece of US security policy as the continent’s largest oil producer. When the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta's (MEND) armed rebellion targeted oil facilities in the Niger Delta in the 2000s, the US provided counter-insurgency training, intelligence assistance and gave former Coast Guard cutters to the Nigerian navy. MEND operation against the Nigerian army in 2008. Photograph: Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty That rebellion led some American officials to conclude Nigerian governments were inherently unstable because of the country’s economic and religious divisions. In 2008, the US Army War College in Pennsylvania carried out a war game in which the Nigerian government is on the brink of collapse and the US intervenes to protect the oil supply...
US officials have pointed to rising anti-US rhetoric by Boko Haram. The US House of Representatives Homeland Security committee issued a report three years ago, ‘Boko Haram: Emerging Threat to US Homeland which said the group could be a threat to Nigeria’s oil production...."the rising threat of Boko Haram presents the US an opportunity to expand diplomatic and military engagement..." General Ham, Former Commander of US African Command, said “...Boko Haram has altered” the US relationship with Nigeria, Washington was looking for “ways Nigeria would like us to give help in developing their counterterrorist capabilities”... Former US assistant secretary of state for Africa, Johnnie Carson, said the US offer of assistance to Nigeria fits with its policy on the continent including the use of US troops and aircraft in a so far unsuccessful effort to track down Joseph Kony, leader of the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda....[it] has spent millions of dollars helping Nigeria develop a counter-terrorism infantry unit and "tactical communications"...also trained Nigerian forces for peacekeeping operations...But Carson said there are limits to the levels of US cooperation in part because of the Nigerian military's brutal response to Boko Haram...
There is suspicion in Nigeria that pressure for a greater US role will be used to justify AFRICOM after it rejected pressure for it to be based in Nigeria and openly opposed its creation...

Nigeria finally accepts U.S. help to rescue girls kidnapped by Boko Haram
April 22, Punch Nigeria reported #Whereareour85daughters had been trending in Nigeria... The first person to promote that hashtag was Obiageli Ezekwesili, a former Nigerian Minister of Education, former vice president of the World Bank for the Africa region and a senior advisor on Africa Economic Development Policy for the Open Society Foundations

"bring back our girls"
Obiageli Ezekwesili initiated the #bringbackourgirls:
Obiageli Ezekwesili served as Nigeria's Federal Minister of Solid Minerals and as Federal Minister of Education during the second term presidency of Olusegun Obasanjo. Prior to working for the Government of Nigeria, Ezekwesiili worked with Professor Jeffrey Sachs at the Harvard Center for International Development.
In March 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz announced the appointment of Ezekwesili as Vice President of the Africa Division in 48 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, supervising a lending portfolio of over $40 billion.Ezekwesili was co-founder and director of Transparency International. As a senior George Soros Open Society Institute economic advisor she advises nine African heads of state including Paul Kagame of Rwanda and Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia.
October 1, 2012, Bharti Airtel, one of the world’s leading telecommunications firm with operations in 20 countries, named Ezekwesili as a Board director. She also sits on the boards of Central European University's School of Public Policy, The Harold Hartog School of Government and Policy, New Africa Magazine, The Center for Global Leadership at Tufts University.

Also starting April 29, the Twitter account for the fund representing Malala Yousafzai, the girl attacked by the Taliban, began sharing photos and news stories about her support for the girls, and Unicef Education adopted the hashtag.

'Hashtag Activism Skills and Strategies | Engaging in Causes
learning.blogs.nytimes.com/ 2014/ 05/ 09/ skills-and-strategies-engaging-in-causes-via-hashtag-activism/ -
“Bring back the girls! ... In 2012 the “Kony 2012″ video...

... officials from the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), USAID, General ... vice-president of the World Bank for Africa to “Bring Back the Girls!”
https://www.facebook.com/TonyPrest2015 -

Bring back our girls: global protests over abduction of Nigerian schoolgirls
5/7/14 ">http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/07/bring-back-our-girls-global-protests-abduction-nigerian-schoolgirls>
A social media campaign under the hashtag #Bringbackourgirls that started trending in Nigeria two weeks ago has been tweeted more than one million times. “Bring Back the Girls!” was first used April 23 in a speech by World Bank for Africa Vice President Dr. Oby Ezekwesili at an opening UNESCO ceremony honouring the Nigerian city Port Harcourt.....
Michelle Obama joins worldwide protest over missing Nigerian schoolgirls tweeting with a photo of herself in the White House holding a white piece of paper with “#Bring Back Our Girls”..."... It's an act of terrorism and merits the fullest response possible. First and foremost from the government of Nigeria,” Hillary Clinton said

America to the rescue
By Obi Nwakanma, 5/11/14 http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/05/america-rescue/
...Two important phrases are fundamental to understanding our current situation: first is the first president’s clear position that sovereignty confers on a nation the responsibility for its own defences, second, that defence of that sovereignty means the creation and mobilization of a defence system to “ensure internal security and serve as a deterrent to external aggression.” Before a president assumes power in Nigeria, he swears an oath of allegiance to the Republic of Nigeria that binds him to these commitments and the duty to defend Nigeria’s sovereign power with his life.
Last week, President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration accepted the offer of the United States and the UK Governments, to send military operators in “aid” to Nigeria to smoke out the Boko Haram abductors of the girls from Chibok. Jonathan’s action quickly ignited the discussion fora by Nigerians on-line, as well as in various Nigerian living rooms, about the implications of ceding Nigeria’s territorial space to a foreign military power to operate freely. Sovereign nations do not permit that kind of intrusion.
Many Nigerians are furious that President Jonathan used the excuse of Boko Haram to allow his handlers to “invade” Nigeria and begin a process of dismantling and recolonizing Nigeria. They do not see US or UK goodwill, they see something more dangerous: the US use of the Boko Haram insurgency as coverage or excuse to establish its long-thought military operations called “AFRICOM” opposed by Nigerian presidents before Jonathan. They see a US military presence smuggled through the back door dangerous to Nigeria’s long term interests in Africa, particularly in Central West Africa...that by inviting foreign armies to operate freely in Nigeria and intervene in Nigeria’s internal security operations, Jonathan has abjured the oath of his office to defend Nigeria’s sovereignty with his life...

KONY 2012, Invisible Children's Pro-AFRICOM and Museveni Propaganda
3/8/12 Black Star News Editorial, "Speaking Truth To Empower"
Dr. Joseph Goebbels' and Leni Riefenstahl would have been proud of this cinematic coup...The U.S. government and Invisible Children are using the brutal Joseph Kony as a bogeyman to justify the U.S. long-term plan to impose AFRICOM on Africa. Since everyone knows about Kony's atrocities, who would object if the U.S. sends 100 U.S. "advisers" to help Uganda, after all? Brilliantly devious. Of course it never stops at 100 "advisers."...the announced deployment; there are probably more U.S. troops in the region. Even before the deployment some had already been training Museveni's soldiers. And more will come, unannounced. General Museveni...told Atlantic Monthly Magazine, September 1994: “I have never blamed the whites for colonizing Africa: I never blamed whites for taking slaves. If you are stupid, you should be taken a slave.” Ironically --or perhaps not-- the general was even more embraced by Washington after those remarks. Museveni deployed Ugandan soldiers to Somalia at the behest of the US...has been a U.S. ally since the days of Ronald Reagan. If the real target was Joseph Kony, the U.S. would use armed predator drones...
AFRICOM, the ultimate objective, would allow the U.S. to counter China by having boots on the ground near the oil-rich northern part of Uganda, South Sudan, Congo's region bordering Lake Albert, and the Central African Republic. The troops would also be near by in case a decision is made to support regime-change in Khartoum, Sudan... that since Sudan's president Omar Hassan al-Bashir and his defense minister have both been indicted by the *International Criminal Court, few would shed tears for them.
African countries oppose AFRICOM. So what does the U.S. do? Go after a "devil", in this case Kony. Tell the world --with the help of Invisible Children--our mission is to help rid Uganda of this "devil"; who by the way is hiding in Central African Republic, while the dictator who stole elections last February, sits in Kampala and meets with U.S. officials and leaders of Invisible Children.

Invisible Children’s Kony 2012 Video: Justication For More US AFRICOM Wars Over Oil
(excerpt) 3/20/12 By F. William Engdahl http://www.globalresearch.ca/invisible-children-s-kony-2012-video-a-just...
engdahl.oilgeopolitics.net 20 March 2012
China alters African geopolitical calculus
...“Kony2012” is manipulative propaganda to advance an AFRICOM military presence in the richest mineral region in the world before China, and perhaps Russia or India preempt it...
President Obama has already sent 100 US elite special forces troops to Central Africa to serve as “advisers” to hunt down Kony...the prelude to Pentagon militarization of central Africa, following the NATO destruction of order in Libya, and the chaos in Egypt and other Islamic states targeted by the US “Arab Spring,” better termed “Arab Nightmare.” ...
...Hillary Clinton put it clearly: “If you’ve got people choosing a different path, then you have to use all the tools of your suasion to try to convince them the path that you wish to follow is the one that is in their interest as well.".....A few years ago...China turned its attention to Africa, especially its Great Rift Belt or Valley...stretching from Syria in the north, down through Sudan and Eritrea and the Red Sea, and deep into southern Africa across the eastern Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia and into Mozambique. This East African Rift System, as geologists term it, is one of the richest treasures of subsurface minerals, including clearly vast untapped reserves of oil and gas... the eastern and western faults of the Great Rift Valley runs 4,500 miles from southern Africa, under the Red Sea, and into Syria in southwestern Asia...This region of central and east Africa is considered one of the hottest unexplored regions in the world for potential hydrocarbons—oil and gas. In 2010 Texas oil company Anadarko Petroleum discovered a giant reservoir of natural gas off the coast of Mozambique. Estimates are that Somalia holds perhaps 10 billion barrels of untapped oil.[15] The chronic political unrest and AFRICOM-backed tensions there—convenient for western oil majors seeking to maintain absurdly high oil prices by controlling supply—prevent the development of the oil. While West and North Africa have undergone tens of thousands of oil well drillings over the last decades, East and Central Africa, including Darfur and South Sudan, Chad, Central African Republic are all but terra incognita in terms of drilling....

China hosted more than 40 African heads of state in 2006 in Beijing, and followed that with highest-level state visits across Africa — Chinese oil companies and industry signing multi-billion deals with “forgotten” Africa — Washington suddenly took notice. In 2008...Daniel Volman, director of the Washington African security Research Project stated, “a number of developments—especially the continent’s increasing importance as a source of energy supplies and other raw materials—have radically altered the picture. They have led to the growing economic and military involvement of China, India, and other emerging industrial powers in Africa and to the re-emergence of Russia as an economic and military power on the continent. In response the US has dramatically increased its military presence in Africa and created a new military command—the Africa Command or AFRICOM — to protect what it has defined as its “strategic national interests” in Africa. This has ignited what has come to be known as the “new scramble for Africa” and is transforming the security architecture of Africa.”
F. William Engdahl is the author of Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order. He may be contacted from his website, www.engdahl.oilgeopolitics.net  

2/18/08 Vice Admiral Robert T. Moeller at the AFRICOM Conference said AFRICOM'S guiding principle is protecting “the free flow of natural resources from Africa to the global market”, citing China’s increasing presence in the region as challenging American interests.

STATE DEPT. & AFRICOM 'smart power' merger of soft & hard power' “the three D’s” – defense, diplomacy and development.
“United States is providing millions of dollars to the Ugandan army – in fuel, trucks, satellite phones, night-vision goggles and air support – to hunt the LRA down. It is one of the signature programs of AFRICOM, the new U.S. military command for Africa, which is working closely with the State Department to employ what U.S. calls
“the three D’s” – defense, diplomacy and development – to help African nations stabilize themselves...."
3/28/12 Jeffrey Gettleman

Social Media Shuffle: From Kony To Spooning
4/19/12 http://www.npr.org/2012/04/19/150964208/young-people-turn-from-kony-to-s...
"Invisible Children" sought to deflect "Kony 2012" criticism by releasing a second video that spoke to geopolitical complexities of Central Africa and its own Uganda projects...

U.S. sends Osprey aircraft, more Special Operations forces to hunt Kony, Ugandan warlord
10/28/13 http://www.wnd.com/2014/01/u-s-seeks-to-keep-dollars-flowing-to-nigeria/

USAID Nigeria  
US Department of State 8/28/13 U.S. Bilateral Relations With Nigeria. ... USAID Nigeria Page · History of U.S. Relations With Nigeria .....

USAID Administrator Shah Travels to Nigeria for World Economic Forum
www.usaid.gov/ news-information/ press-releases/ may-5-2014-media-advisory-usaid-administrator-shah-travels-nigeria-wo rld-economic-forum -

date disinformation?
Another group of schoolgirls kidnapped in Nigeria
Another eight girls were kidnapped in Nigeria, adding to the 276 kidnapped by Boko Haram nearly a year ago....A police source who could not be named...

Local officials say suspected Boko Haram militants stormed the town of Gamboru Ngala, on Cameroon border...
5/7/14 VOA http://www.voanews.com/content/hundreds-feared-dead-in-new-nigerian-mili...
Nigeria declared a state of emergency in three northeastern states a year ago but efforts by the military to crush or contain the insurgency have been unsuccessful....Earlier Thursday, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan pledged to find more than 200 schoolgirls abducted by Islamist rebels, as the hostage crisis overshadowed his opening address to a major conference designed to showcase investment opportunities in Africa's biggest economy. Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Africa (WEFA) hosted in the capital Abuja, Jonathan thanked foreign nations including the U.S., Britain, France, Canada, Israel and China for support in efforts to rescue the girls kidnapped from a secondary school on April 14 by suspected Islamic militant group Boko Haram.

AFRICOM U.S. Military Support to African Efforts to Counter the Lord’s Resistance Army)
The role of the U.S. military
It is widely recognized that there is no purely military solution to the efforts of African security and administrative officials from throughout the region to protect the civilian population from the threat posed by Joseph Kony and the LRA. The U.S. military role is in support of a combined effort that involves the U.S. embassies in the affected countries, U.S. Agency for International Development’s programs, as well as contributions from nongovernmental organizations.

The Invisible Children's Co-Founder and President, Laren Poole addressed the International Criminal Court in 2009 alongside Aryeh Neier, President of George Soros’ Open Society Institute.
KONY 2012 portrays itself as an indigenous activist movement bringing justice to African children...its parent organization is affiliated with top US media and a network of foundation-funded civil society groups with a long history of fomenting pro-US regime change under the banner of democratic institution building. Invisible Children partnered with two other organizations, Resolve and Digitaria, to create the LRA Crisis Tracker digital crisis-mapping platform that broadcasts attacks allegedly committed by the LRA. On its list of corporate sponsors, Resolve lists Human Rights Watch and the International Rescue Committee ..

Rights Group: Nigerian Authorities Were Warned of Raid on Girls' School
5/9/14 VOA http://www.voanews.com/content/us-team-working-with-nigeria-to-find-kidn...
Amnesty International (AI) said Nigerian security forces had advance warning about the raid on the girls boarding school but security forces failed to act on warnings that began coming in more than four hours before Boko Haram fighters attacked the school April 14... it blamed the lack of action on an "inability to muster troops,"Amnesty said it learned of the warnings from local officials and two senior military officers...
Pentagon spokesman Admiral John Kirby said "We're not talking about U.S. military operations in Nigeria to find these girls. That's not the focus here." He said the U.S. will also continue working with Nigeria on counter-terrorism...

Joseph Kony Is Back In The News...
3/25/14 http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/03/25/294315138/joseph-kony-is-b...
Kony is back in the news, with President Obama ordering 150 additional U.S. special operations personnel on the hunt for Kony...Two years ago, a 30-minute video about Kony became one of the biggest viral sensations in Internet history... Invisible Children the group that produced the "Kony 2012" video, ran headlong into controversy and suffered a big blow to its credibility.Two years on, however, the video and the reaction to it are still studied by social media "..even two years later, it's a classic example of how well-designed a social media campaign should be, but also the challenges of keeping an audience's attention in the social media world," says Marcus Messner, who teaches social media at Virginia Commonwealth University....

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Countering Extremism:
Boko Haram and the Isolation of Northern Nigeria: Regional and International Implications
... Boko Haram has important multinational implications....The challenges posed by Boko Haram reflect the fusing of local grievances with international ideology, funding, and technology. Effectively addressing the multiple layers of this transnational threat requires the sustained engagement of Nigeria's neighbors and international partners.

Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

Ongoing attacks by Boko Haram and other violent Islamist groups coupled with at times arbitrary responses by Nigeria's security forces have contributed to a deteriorating security situation in the north.... also mask longer-running radicalization dynamics requiring a sustained approach targeting every stage of the radicalization spectrum...
*US Team in Nigeria to Aid Search for Kidnapped Gir
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