Consolidation of U.S. State of Terror: Fascism's Not So 'Friendly Face'

digest: state terror, from institutionalized genocide to torture and state-sponsored 'news' revelations. Results: as if it’s brand new isolated events: investigations by the perpetrators. Conclusion, it’s about protecting the amarican people, e.g., for counterrevolutionary national security...despite rare individual excesses

DOD Office of Inspector General
Review of DoD-Directed Investigations of Detainee Abuse (Report No. 06- INTEL-IO) (U) August 25, 2006 Evaluation Report

CIA History of Office of Technical Service 1951-2001
...MKULTRA “involved Agency funding for testing and use of chemical and biological agents and other means of controlling or modifying human behavior” (p. 19).

Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing: The Origins of Aggressive Interrogation Techniques
Part I of the Committee’s Inquiry into the Treatment of Detainees in U.S. Custody
SERE resistance training techniques were turned on their head and sanctioned by Department of Defense officials for use against detainees. he DoD Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) oversees SERE training. The U.S. military has five SERE Survival Evasion Resistance and Escape schools. SERE resistance training exposes students to physical and psychological pressures designed to simulate abusive conditions they might be subjected to if taken prisoner by enemies that refuse to follow the Geneva Conventions...
SERE techniques are based on abusive tactics used by our enemies. If we use those same techniques offensively against detainees, it says to the world that they have Americas stamp of approval. That puts our troops at greater risk of being abused if captured. It also weakens our moral authority and harms our efforts to attract allies to our side in the fight against terrorism...

August 1, 2002... the Department of Justices Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) issued two legal opinions. One (TAB 5),known as the first Bybee memo, was addressed to then-White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales and provided OLCs opinion on standards of conduct in interrogation required under the federal torture statute. That memo concluded:
[F]or an act to constitute torture as defined in [the federal torture statute], it must inflict pain that is difficult to endure. Physical pain amounting to torture must be equivalent in intensity to the pain accompanying serious physical injury, such as organ failure, impairment of bodily function, or even death. For purely mental pain or suffering to amount to torture under [the federal torture statute], it must result in significant psychological harm of significant duration, e.g., lasting for months or even years.
The other OLC opinion, issued the same day known as the second Bybee memo, responded to a CIA request, and addressed the legality of specific interrogation tactics.
While the interrogation tactics reviewed by the OLC in the second Bybee memo remain classified, General Hayden, in public testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee in February of this year, said the waterboard was one of the techniques that the CIA used with detainees. Steven Bradbury, the current Assistant Attorney General of the OLC, testified before the House Judiciary Committee earlier this year that the CIA use of the waterboarding procedure was adapted from the SERE training program.

Appendix M, 2006 U.S. Army Interrogations Field Manual allows military and CIA interrogators to continue torturing detainees

CIA Torture Orgy 100 or More Prisoners Tortured to Death in US Detention.

Sending troops to protect dictators threatens all of us
Seumas Milne,
base in Bahain all deliver a toxic mes
Detainees in orange jumpsuits in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 'Britain has been up to its neck in the CIA savagery, colluding in kidnapping and torture.' Photograph: U.S. Navy/Getty Images

We may have known the outline of the global US kidnapping and torture programme for a few years. But even the heavily censored summary of the US senate torture report turns the stomach in its litany of criminal barbarity...earlier accounts of US brutality in Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo pale next to the sanitised record of forced rectal “infusions” and prolapses, multiple “waterboard” drownings and convulsions, the shackled freezing to death of a man seized in case of mistaken identity, hooded beatings and hanging by wrists, mock executions, and sleep deprivation for up to 180 hours.
What has been published is in fact only a small part of a much bigger picture, including an estimated 100 or more prisoners tortured to death in US detention. Added to the rampant lying, cover-ups and impunity, it’s a story that champions of American “exceptionalism” will find hard to sell around the world. And hardly out of line with record of CIA coups, death squads, torture schools and covert war stretching back decades, some revealed in1970s earlier senate report.
There is of course nothing exceptional about states that preach human rights and democracy, but practise the opposite when it suits them. For all the senate’s helpful redactions, Britain has been up to its neck in the CIA savagery, colluding in kidnapping and torture from Bagram to Guantánamo while dishing out abuses of its own in Iraq and Afghanistan.
So you’d hardly think this reminder of the horrors unleashed in the name of the war on terror was the time for Britain to announce its first permanent Middle East military base in four decades. The subsequent invasions, occupations and bombing campaigns led by the US, Britain and others have been endlessly cited by those who resist them in the Arab and Muslim world, or launched attacks in the west. But last week, foreign secretary Phillip Hammond proudly declared Britain would reverse its withdrawal from “east of Suez” of the late 1960s and open a navy base “for the long term” in the Gulf autocracy of Bahrain. The official talk is about protecting Britain’s “enduring interests” and the stability of the region. But to those fighting for the right to their own country, the message could not be clearer. Britain, the former colonial power, and US, whose 5th Fleet is already based in Bahrain behind the unelected rulers...
The US controls an archipelago of military bases across the Gulf: in Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and the UAE, as well as Bahrain. And despite Barack Obama’s much-heralded pivot to Asia, they are clearly there for the long haul....after the overthrow of the Egyptian dictator Mubarak three years ago, the Gulf autocrats are looking for extra security, which Britain and France are glad to provide... the Gulf is now as much about arms sales and finance as about oil and gas – and a web of political, commercial and intelligence links that go to the heart of the British establishment. So the British military is also looking to beef up its presence in the UAE, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait. The crucial thing is that these colonial creations remain in the grip of their ruling families and democratisation is put on the back burner. That’s the only guarantee this corrosive relationship will endure –on the back of grotesquely disenfranchised populations and armies of exploited migrant labour. On a larger scale...western-backed dictatorship in Egypt, the Arab world’s most important country, helped re-establish the conditions that led to the war on terror in the first place. Obama... expanded special forces and CIA drone killings (“Disposition Matrix”) often suspects targeted by their “signatures” – such as all males of military age.

Torture, and the 'Strategic Helplessness' of the American Psychological Association
By Stephen Soldz, Brad Olson, Steven Reisner, Jean Maria Arrigo, Bryant Welch, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology
24/07/08 Jane Mayer's new book, The Dark Side, has refocused attention on psychologists’ participation in Bush administration torture and detainee abuse. In one chapter Mayer provides previously undisclosed details about the psychologists role in the CIA's brutal, “enhanced interrogation” techniques that drew heavily on the theory of "learned helplessness" developed by former American Psychological Association (APA) President Martin Seligman. (Seligman’s work involved tormenting dogs with electrical shocks until they became totally unable or unwilling to extract themselves from the painful situation. Hence“learned helplessness.”) ...One prisoner was repeatedly locked in a fetal position; in a cage too tiny for him to do anything but lie still in a fetal position...designed not only to restrict movement, but also to make breathing difficult. ...a Defense Department Office report of the Inspector General (OIG) and from documents released during recent hearings by the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC), [revealed] these SERE techniques, designed to ameliorate the effects of torture on American troops, were "reverse engineered," to orchestrate the abuse of US detainees... These documents reveal, further, that certain SERE psychologists shifted roles from supervising protective SERE programs to overseeing SERE-inspired abusive interrogations. Several reporters have named Mitchell and Jessen (former SERE psychologists under contract) as responsible for this "reverse-engineering" used at secret overseas CIA "black sites". The Senate Armed Senate Committee reported that other psychologists played a role in the “reverse-engineering” of SERE techniques for the Department of Defense....The psychologist referred to in Senator Levin’s opening remarks was APA member, Maj. John Leso, whose recommendations at that meeting included “sleep deprivation, withholding food, isolation, loss of time…[to] foster dependence and compliance". Also reported in the hearings was that psychologist Col. Morgan Banks provided training in abusive SERE techniques to Guantánamo interrogators.
Col. Banks, not an APA member, was appointed to the APA Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force on interrogations. APA has yet to comment upon the startling revelations of psychologist complicity from these committee hearings.

APA put extraordinary effort into maintaining and expanding opportunities for psychologists to serve US intelligence and security. As the APA's Science Policy Insider News (SPIN) proudly announced in January 2005, "Since 9/11 psychologists have searched for opportunities to contribute to the nation's counter terrorism and homeland security agenda."These efforts included cosponsoring a conference with the CIA to investigate the efficacy of enhanced interrogation techniques, including the use of drugs and sensory bombardment. Among the reported organizers of that conference was APA member Kirk Hubbard, Chief of the Research & Analysis Branch, Operational Assessment Division of the CIA. Hubbard recruited the “operational expertise” for that conference. Among the attendees to this “by-invitation-only” conference were Mitchell and Jessen. (Hubbard also helped organize the event at which Seligman spoke and to which Mitchell and Jessen were invited.)
In addition, the APA co-sponsored a conference with the FBI during which it was suggested that therapists report to law-enforcement officials information obtained during therapy sessions regarding “national security risk.” And just this past June, APA's efforts included lobbying for the retention of “invaluable behavioral science programs within DoD’s Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA) as it reorganizes and loses personnel strength.” For those who are not familiar with this issue, the CIFA program was closed down because of numerous scandals, including: misuse of national security letters to gain access to private citizen’s financial information without warrants, the resignation of a Congressman accused of accepting bribes in exchange for CIFA contracts, and, according to the New York Times, the collection of a wide-reaching domestic “database that included information about antiwar protests planned at churches, schools and Quaker meeting halls.” The CIFA psychology directorate, although a top secret operation, was known for its risk assessments of Guantánamo detainees, including feeding questions to interrogators... CIA has a long record of tapping academic scientists as witting and unwitting consultants and researchers, and of providing protection through cover stories and secrecy. For example, the 1977 Senate investigation of the CIA Behavioral Modification Project (MKULTRA) disclosed CIA had contracted with researchers at over 80 universities, hospitals, and other research-based institutions through a front funding agency... Recently, Dr. Belinda Canton, a long-time CIA intelligence manager and a member of the 2005 President’s Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, recommended opportunistic use of scientists as an approach to management of uncertainty: “Identify academics and scientists who may have insights” and note where “opportunities exist to exploit scientific cadre.”[ii] ...
In May 2007, the Defense Department declassified the Office of Inspector General report, documenting the role of SERE psychologists in training U.S. military and CIA personnel in techniques of abuse that "violated the Geneva Conventions." The APA responded with silence. When we inquired about the APA’s reaction, we were told that the organization needed time to "carefully study" the report. It has been 14 months, and to date no APA leader has commented upon the Report....
[i] U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Intelligence and Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources. (1977) Project MKULTRA: the CIA's program of research in behavioral modification. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Pp. 7, 12-13, 123 & 148-149.
[ii] Canton, Belinda. (2008). The active management of uncertainty. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 21 (3): 487-518.

“War on terror” psychologist gets giant no-bid contract
$31 million deal to Dr. Martin Seligman
The Army awarded the “sole source” contract in February to the University of Pennsylvania’s Positive Psychology Center, for resilience training conducted by famed psychologist Martin Seligman...famous for 1960’s his “learned helplessness” work in which he psychologically destroyed caged dogs by subjecting them to repeated electric shocks with no hope of ultimately they would not even escape through an open cage door to avoid more pain. ...
Seligman taught his “learned helplessness” theories to the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape (SERE) psychologists, who engineered it into the “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques” used by the CIA and DoD to torture prisoners in “war on terror” prisons around the world. Seligman admitted SERE lecturing, but denied any role in torture.

note: Psychiatrists APsychiA are medical doctors, APA psychologists are not
Two weeks after the APsychiA adopted its unequivocal policy against any participation in interrogations, versus APA policy allowing psychologists roles in interrogation proceedings the Pentagon announced it would give preference to psychologists over psychiatrists in its hiring practices.

US world war to prevent socialist revolution and maintain its barbaric global hegemony by state terror
Espionage Act of 1917
President Woodrow Wilson: law protecting US against "the insidious methods of internal hostile activities."...what Attorney General Thomas Gregory called "warfare by propaganda."
Deeming a criminal anyone "when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States." The act said such individuals would "be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years or both." The act also declared that any mailing that violated the above provision of the act was illegal, and it also banned any mailings advocating or urging Treason, insurrection, or forcible resistance to any law of the United States. Finally, the act declared it unlawful for any person in time of war to publish any information that the president, in his judgment, declared to be "of such character that it is or might be useful to the enemy."

Risen said he will go to prison rather than testify about his sources.
Supreme Court refuses to take reporter’s case on revealing source Twitter Share on Google Plus Share via Email More Op
The Supreme Court turned down requests from reporter James Risen and a host of media organizations, including The Washington Post, to overturn a lower court’s order and find that reporters are protected by the Constitution from testifying about their sources. The justices offered no reason for turning down the case.
Risen, a two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter, said he will go to prison rather than testify about his sources.

Justice Dept. Cites Obstacles in Blackwater Case
Justice officials told Congress they face serious legal difficulties pursuing criminal prosecutions of Blackwater security guards involved in a September shooting that left at least 17 Iraqis dead.

Climate of Fear: Jim Risen v. Obama administration

Obama Justice Dept. Subpoenas NYT reporter Risen in CIA leak case

James Risen in his new book, Pay Any Price, wrote that American Psychology Association (APA) officials worked closely with CIA and Department of Defense officials to devise the psychologists-in-interrogations program. Risen got access to hundreds of emails so damning the APA finally agreed to an independent investigation. Now our list serves are abuzz with the James Mitchell interview. Psychologists, furious with the damage this “colleague” has done to our profession...

Risen’s New Book Exposes the ‘War on Terror’...immense horrors perpetrated in the name of national security.

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War, by James Risen
Ever since 9/11 America has fought an endless war on terror, seeking enemies everywhere never promising peace. In Pay Any Price, James Risen reveals an extraordinary litany of the hidden costs of that war: from squandered and stolen dollars, to outrageous abuses of power, to wars on normalcy, decency, and truth. In the name of fighting terrorism, our government has done things every bit as shameful as its historic wartime abuses — and until this book, it has worked very hard to cover them up. Lincoln suspended habeas corpus. FDR authorized the internment of thousands of Japanese Americans. Presidents Bush and Obama now must face their own reckoning. Power corrupts, endless war corrupts absolutely....

Justice Department revokes approval of subpoena to compel Risen to reveal source
Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. told prosecutors that while they may still request a subpoena of Risen, the journalist cannot be required to reveal any information about the identity of his source, according to the person familiar with Holder’s decision, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations....Sterling is accused of being a source in Risen’s book, “State of War,” in which the reporter revealed a CIA effort to sabotage Iran’s nuclear arms program. No decision was made about whether to issue a subpoena to Risen, the official said.

Top U.S. Behavioral Scientists Studied Survival Schools to Create Torture Program Over 50 Years Ago
By: Jeff Kaye,
On this International Day of Support of Victims of Torture, I am reposting an article I wrote on Jason Leopold’s The Public Record....Torture at home, torture abroad...will we succumb to barbarism?
...A couple of recent articles have highlighted the unseemly fact that some past presidents of the American Psychological Association (APA), the foremost professional organization for psychologists in the United States, if not the world, had links to the use of torture, or at least to military research into coercive interrogations.
An article by Jane Mayer in the recent New Yorker on CIA Director Leon Panetta noted in passing the participation of a former APA president Joseph Matarazzo on the governing staff of the Mitchell, Jessen & Associates (MJA) torture firm. First identified as one of the “governing people” of MJA by Bill Morlin in a Spokesman Review article in August 2007, Matarazzo is now known to have also been CIA, as noted in an article by Physicians for Human Rights Campaign Against Torture director, Nathaniel Raymond: Mayer notes, parenthetically, that she learned from CIA Kirk Hubbard that former APA president Joseph Matarazzo sat on the CIA professional-standards board when psychologists James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen were developing an interrogation program for the CIA, based on the US military Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape” SERE training program.
This new information came at the same time as former APA insider Bryant Welch was publishing his tell-all about APA and the Defense Department, "Torture, Psychology, and Daniel Inouye". Welch singled out former APA presidents Gerald Koocher and Ron Levant, along with Senator Daniel Inouye’s office, as key lobbyists for the participation of psychologists in interrogations:
One of Inouye’s administrative assistants, psychologist Patrick Deleon, has long been active in the APA and served a term in 2000 as APA president. For significant periods of time DeLeon has literally directed APA staff on federal policy matters and has dominated the APA governance on political matters. For over twenty-five years, relationships between the APA and the Department of Defense (DOD) have been strongly encouraged and closely coordinated by DeLeon.
Another famous former APA president, Martin Seligman, was also linked with the government’s recent torture program. According to Jane Mayer, Seligman taught his “learned helplessness” theories to the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape or SERE psychologists, who reverse-engineered it into the “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques” used by the CIA and DoD to torture prisoners in “war on terror” prisons around the world. Seligman admitted lecturing at SERE, but has denied any role in torture.
The role of former APA presidents DeLeon, Koocher, Levant, Seligman, and Matarazzo in supporting the role of military psychologists in interrogations, even after evidence of torture by the U.S. government was manifest, is perhaps unequalled in the annals of professional societies, as providing political, and possibly organizational and theoretical or practical support to unethical procedures, especially torture. (Stephen Soldz has outlined some of this recent history in an article just posted at ACLU Blog of Rights.)...But that is not the end of the story; it is not even the beginning.
Before this set of military/CIA-collaborationist APA presidents, there was Harry Harlow, and before him, Donald Hebb. Both were famous, distinguished U.S. psychologists, and both had been presidents of the APA in the 1950s. Both engaged in research, some of it secret, for the military and CIA. Hebb was a pioneer in the study of sensory deprivation. Harlow’s contribution was more synthetic: he helped construct an entire paradigm around the problem of how to break down an individual by torture.
In 1956, in the pages of academic journal, Sociometry, I.E. Farber, Harry F. Harlow, and psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West published a classic work on interrogation, Brainwashing, Conditioning, and DDD (Debility, Dependency, and Dread) (BCD). It was based on a report for the Study Group on Survival Training, paid for by the U.S. Air Force. (See West LJ., Medical and psychiatric considerations in survival training. In Report of the Special Study Group on Survival Training (AFR 190 16). Lackland Air Force Base, Tex: Air Force Personnel and Training Research Centers; 1956.) This linked “SERE training, with torture techniques, and the use of such techniques by the CIA and DOD....

Dependency on captors for some relief from their agony was “produced by the prolonged deprivation of many of the factors, such as sleep and food…The use of prolonged isolation of the prisoner, depriving an individual of expected social intercourse and stimulation, “markedly strengthened the dependency”.... BCD described it as “chronic fear…. Fear of death, fear of pain, fear of nonrepatriation, fear of deformity of permanent disability…. even fear of one’s own inability to satisfy the demands of insatiable interrogators.” The bulk of BCD explains the effects of DDD in terms of Pavlovian conditioning and the learning theories of U.S. psychologist Edward Thorndike. The consequence of the resulting “collapse of ego functions” is described as similar to “postlobotomy syndrome”. By disorganizing the perception of those experiential continuities constituting the self-concept and impoverishing the basis for judging self-consistency, DDD affects one’s habitual ways of looking at and dealing with oneself. [p. 275]...
BCD explains aspects of the U.S. torture program that otherwise appear insane...the painful stress positioning of prisoners documented at Abu Ghraib and other U.S.-run detainee prisons — most recently, at Bagram prison in Afghanistan... all part of inducing dependency through expectation of relief, in a diabolical way. Forced stress positions are “self-inflicted punishment”, which increases the expectancy of relief [pp. 276-277]...
The need for sensory stimulation and social interaction, the need to eat, to sleep, to reduce fear, all used to build dependencies upon the captor, using the fact that “the strengthening effects of rewards — in this instance the alleviation of an intensely unpleasant emotional state — are fundamentally automatic” [p. 278]. This impairment of higher cognitive states and disruption and disorganization of self-concept, producing something like “a pathological organic state”...DDD remained the programmatic core of counterintelligence interrogation...Chapter Nine of the 1963 CIA KUBARK manual, ”Coercive Counterintelligence Interrogation of Resistant Sources,” describes coercive interrogation procedures as “designed to induce regression.” The anonymous authors of KUBARK quote the BCD article specifically: Farber says the response to coercion typically contains “… at least three important elements: debility, dependency, and dread.” Prisoners “… have reduced viability, are helplessly dependent on their captors for the satisfaction of their many basic needs, and experience the emotional and motivational reactions of intense fear and anxiety”…

American Psychological Association (APA)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States and contains a listing of diagnostic criteria for every psychiatric disorder recognized by U.S. healthcare system.

among new APA additions to the 2013 DMV 5:
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) essays/ psychology/ oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-conduct-disorder-psychology-essay.p hp
ODD and CD, two of three subgroups in DSM-IV criteria for ‘Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behaviour Disorders, the third being Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (APA, 2000).